Ranges of vehicles (not limited to electric vehicles) can be measured by many different approaches. Some of these approaches are closer to reality, some are far from reality. And "reality" can differ considerably as well. Riding a scooter from one village to another in the Netherlands is, considering the required energy, likely very different from riding the same distance through heavy traffic in San Francisco or San Diego...
When a vehicle is accelerated on a perfectly flat surface, and provided that friction and air resistance (drag) are neglected, then all that requires energy is the acceleration. The same amount of energy can then theoretically be recuperated from braking. Riding downhill results in a loss of potential energy that could be recuperated, while riding uphill does the opposite: Requiring the amount of potential energy that is gained from gaining altitude. This in mind, it makes sense that each and every acceleration costs energy, and each and every non-regenerative, abrupt braking, creates a loss of this energy that was spent for accelerating. This shows clearly that city traffic, where strong accelerations and strong braking actions are rather common, will dramatically reduce range of any (!) vehicle, compared to the above mentioned scenario of cross-country driving.
Another factor is drag, which increases, simplified, with the square of the speed, resulting in significantly higher energy consumption at higher speeds (or with headwinds) than at slow speeds. This in mind, there is one "sweet spot" of each vehicle where range at a steady state speed is highest.
For each of our models, we meticulously determined and optimized energy consumption by measuring the required power at different speeds under different conditions. The graphs below show the results of our research and are based on real-world measurements. The Y-axis shows the possible range in km, while the x-axis shows the speed, which needs to be maintained to reach the respective range. Only one single acceleration is being taken into account and the vehicle has to maintain its speed thereafter to reach the respective range.
For all three models, maximum ranges are achieved at speeds between 20 km/h and 25 km/h. We surely know that riding at 20 km/h without braking / accelerating is somewhat far from reality, but we also believe that it is very important to be aware of how ranges are often calculated, particularly given that competitors sometimes only offer ranges at 25 km/h. We therefore also include ranges that are achievable when riding at higher speeds and, in addition, we have calculated ranges according to the so-called "New European Driving Cycle" (NEDC; adapted to e-vehicles), which is a combination of accelerations / braking actions and simulation of cross-country driving. This strategy is meant to approximate an economic, yet realistic driving style that incorporates both city driving and countryside driving. We provide you with all of these data and leave it up to you to select your personal preference / driving style applicable to your personal situation and identify the ranges possible with our models. Be aware that the GTS requires a small motorcycle license in many countries and be aware that, in comparison with competitors, the slightly higher energy consumption at first sight is due to the dimensioning of the drive train, providing you with plenty of power for massive accelerations and high speeds.
Its well known that electrical vehicles are far from being "zero emission" - using electrical power that, on average, is often generated from fossil fuels, electrical vehicles also generate their emissions, but it's "remote" emissions. This is certainly an advantage to get densely populated urban areas clean and quiet, but the emissions are being generated elsewhere.
Besides these direct electricity-associated emissions, there are also emissions and environmental problems associated with the energy storage, the lithium ion batteries. The lithium inside the batteries is a precious material that has a certain lifetime within the battery and that can be recycled. Unfortunately, little of the lithium ion batteries are currently being recycled. We at FLY want to make a change. We actively support recycling of this precious material to be re-used in new batteries. More importantly, it is important to determine the amount of batteries required for a vehicle, and the degree, to which these batteries are really used, meaning: Are they really experiencing full charge / discharge cycles, or are they just being "carried around" as a safety feature? How many batteries are required per 100 km of range?
There is certainly no doubt that e-mobility WILL be the FUTURE, but a direct replacement of drive trains in regular cars will certainly not be the ultimate solution. Let's take a huge Tesla, that has been bought and is used mainly for city trips, as an example. A car that offers an enormous energy storage capacity but that only rarely makes use of it. A heavy car, that in city traffic, despite regenerative braking, consumes more than 20 kWh per 100 km! Based on high capacity 18650-type cells, the TESLA will require about 2000 of these batteries for a trip of 100 km. Using such a car for every day commutation with only one passenger on board is not an environmentally conscious strategy to improve emissions / energy use on our planet. Almost 10 Flybee ONEs can be run on the energy that a single Tesla Model S P90D uses, over the same distance, carrying more than 20 people...
This comparison may be considered unfair, since a Tesla is a totally different vehicle when it comes to cargo capacity and comfort and even stress on batteries may overall be less, but on the other hand: A Tesla (and any other large, electric car such as Audi e-Trons, Nissan Leaf etc.,) can also be considered as being just an electric vehicle that is used for carrying one or two persons from A to B.
So in summary, our comparison demonstrates that in terms of environmentally concious changes to urban mobility concepts, there will be an advantage for small, rather than large personal vehicles in inner city mobility.